One can only conclude that most of this is political rhetoric or based on political expedience. The Court shall have jurisdiction to try any person alleged to have committed any crime under this law, regardless of whether such a crime is alleged to have been committed in the territory of the State or abroad and irrespective of the nationality of the victim, provided that such a person shall be within the territory of the State. Alternatively, the prosecutor may take the situation or the case away from a state in favour of a regional trial. This represents an opportunity to reflect briefly on the successes and failure of the Court to date, especially from an African perspective. This is a significant step in the history of international criminal law.

The Rome Statute binds decision-makers at the ICC, and largely prohibits those decision-makers from considering such political concerns. Post World War II treaties on criminal liability have all embodied this principle. However, there are several concerns with all these proposals. The withdrawal was triggered in April when the ICC Prosecutor opened a preliminary examination into the situation in Burundi since April First, there is a risk that — like the ICC – the AU Criminal Court will become politicised if it allows political organs to interfere in its operation.

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However, the Malabo Protocol has embraced the immunity ratione personae. It may be necessary to fix the ebquête, should your research lead you to some unexpected conclusions. Les pouvoirs des policiers sont.

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This approach is preferable dissertaiton it can lead to dissretation a system of international criminal justice consisting of both regional and universal fragments of international criminal law, which are integrated and so standing in harmony one with another. Complementarity dictates that the ICC will only intervene in cases where states with jurisdiction over such cases are unable or unwilling to investigate or prosecute and thereby reduces the need for the universality principle to be imbedded in the Rome Statute.

Moreover, the AU Model Law has provided the limits for the exercise of universal jurisdiction. The ICC can only prosecute offenders in situations falling within its jurisdiction.

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The state of mind of these managers is the state of mind of the company and is treated by the law as such. Challenges and opportunities, Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, Nairobi,9. For the most part then, broader criticism of the abuse of universal jurisdiction must be disassociated and conceptually distinguished from the jurisdiction of the ICC. Any other way of looking at this is likely to lead to duplication of resources.


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As far as international criminal justice is concerned, the most momentous and controversial events of were directly linked to the two interrelated issues of immunity for sitting heads of state and government and state withdrawal from the Rome Statute dde the International Criminal Court Rome Statute: The drafters and negotiators clearly envisage that, since multiple courts will share jurisdiction, these courts may opt to negotiate among themselves on how best to handle this shared jurisdiction so that the ends of justice are met in an effective, efficient, credible and fair manner.

Thus, the Malabo Protocol must xe the punishments and penalties to be levied against corporate entities found to be criminally liable as well as against the categories of offenders against whom the corporate entity passes its liability. As noted above, the ICC whose Statute does not accord immunities to officials of states parties will remain the only competent court owing dissertatlon the incapacity of the AU Criminal Court to proceed.

The referral decisions were significant in the history of international criminal justice but they came at a high cost for the Court. Concerning the second question on the interplay between the AU Criminal Court and the UNSC with respect to the prosecution of the crime of aggression, there is no reason why the relationship should not be modelled on the Rome Statute.

However, prior to this time, Africa had traces of courts with elements of internationalisation aimed at the prosecution of flagrxnce traders, xissertation was a prominent international crime in the 19th Century.

The immunity issue represents a big stain on an ee white garment. If the Agreement above does not exclude the exercise of jurisdiction over international crimes, it remains to be seen whether it could be utilised by CARICOM for that purpose. This is, however, limited to corporate criminal responsibility at the national level. Hartmut Hamann for assisting with the French editing. Section 3 1Geneva Conventions Act ; Namibia: Flagrajce this assessment, the author concludes that key hit elements include: This publication is the fifth edition following the meeting that was held in August in Lilongwe, Malawi.


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The docket purported to contain glagrance on acts of torture amounting to crimes against humanity committed in Zimbabwe.

The Great Lakes Protocol closely mirrors the definitions of crimes provided in existing international instruments addressing core international crimes i. Competition between courts should be avoided because it can lead to an inefficiency of justice for perpetrators of international crimes. In this regard, Don Deya has written: The communication calls upon the ICC to exercise its jurisdiction and investigate the enuqête of the Chief Executive Officer of Chevron, and any other corporate officers of this company that failed to observe court orders.

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Furthermore, the publication aims to reflect both legal and extra-legal developments in order to provide a holistic understanding of disssertation project of international criminal justice as it affects Africa and Africans as well as the challenges facing this project. ASEAN, made up of mostly small powers and developing nations, has taken the opportunity to shape the incipient regionalism. Although less politically contentious, the primarily consent-based jurisdiction ultimately settled on by negotiating parties can only enqhête the Court so far in terms of fulfilling its mandate to prosecute those bearing the greatest responsibility for international crimes.

It is also disseertation on the applicable procedure. Africa must recognise the fact that, absent UNSC referral of cases to the ICC, the most egregious crimes committed in Africa are highly unlikely to be prosecuted.

The AU has addressed the issue of impunity to international crimes in many ways including through soft and binding legal instruments.