AN INTRODUCTION TO CRITICAL THINKING STEVEN SCHAFERSMAN

All education consists of transmitting to students two different things: True critical thinking is higher-order thinking, enabling a person to, for example, responsibly judge between political candidates, serve on a murder trial jury, evaluate society’s need for nuclear power plants, and assess the consequences of global warming. Stopping for red lights or knowing that you have received the correct change at the supermarket is critical and useful thought, but only low-order thinking; most individuals master this. Critical thinking is a form of judgment, specifically purposeful and reflective judgment. In addition, there is always the possibility of inadvertent human error. Critical thinking is the practice of processing this information in the most skillful, accurate, and rigorous manner possible, in such a way that it leads to the most reliable, logical, and trustworthy conclusions, upon which one can make responsible decisions about one’s life, behavior, and actions with full knowledge of assumptions and consequences of those decisions. Universal concepts and principles of critical thinking can be applied to any context or case but only by reflecting upon the nature of that application.

Critical thinking From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Critical Thinking consists of mental processes of discernment, analysis and evaluation. Instead, we are teaching them what to think. Most people are followers of authority: Critical thinking is the ability to think for one’s self and reliably and responsibly make those decisions that affect one’s life. Critical thinking has its basis in intellectual criteria that go beyond subject-matter divisions and which include: Hence a krites is a discerner, judge or arbiter.

Here are some of the characteristics of such a thinker: This list is, of course, incomplete, but it serves to indicate the type of thinking and approach to life that critical thinking is supposed to be. All of the skills of scientific investigation are matched by critical thinking, which is therefore nothing more than scientific method used in fo life rather than in specifically scientific disciplines or endeavors.

It may be that a workable society or culture can tolerate only a small number of critical thinkers, that learning, internalizing, and practicing scientific and critical thinking is discouraged.

Stopping for red lights or knowing that you have received the correct change at the supermarket is critical and useful thought, but only low-order thinking; most individuals master this. Nickersonan authority on critical thinking, characterizes a good critical thinker in terms of knowledge, abilities, attitudes, and habitual ways of behaving.

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Critical thinking is scientific thinking.

Critical Thinking consists of mental processes of discernment, analysis and evaluation. We do an excellent job of transmitting the content of our respective academic disciplines, but we often fail to teach students how to think effectively about this subject matter, that is, how to properly understand and evaluate it.

Critical thinking has its basis in intellectual criteria that go beyond subject-matter divisions and which include: Humans constantly process information. It includes possible processes of reflecting upon a tangible or intangible item in order to form a solid judgment that reconciles scientific evidence with common sense. Critical thinking is the ability to think for one’s self and reliably and responsibly make those decisions that affect one’s life. Using critical thinking one makes a decision or solves the problem of judging what to believe or what to do, but does so in a reflective way.

Most people, therefore, do not think for themselves, but rely on others to think for them. However, even with the use of critical thinking skills, mistakes can happen due to a thinker’s egocentrism or sociocentrism or failure to be in possession of the full facts.

An Introduction to Critical Thinking by Steven D. Schafersman | The Art of Thinking Critically

Critical thinking is important, because it enables one to analyze, evaluate, explain, and restructure our thinking, decreasing thereby the risk of acting on, or thinking with, a false premise. Critical thinking is a form of judgment, introdjction purposeful and reflective judgment.

an introduction to critical thinking steven schafersman

Critical thinking means correct thinking in the pursuit of relevant and reliable knowledge about the world. Universal concepts and principles of critical thinking can be applied to any context or case but only by reflecting upon the nature of that application.

As defined in A Greek-English Lexicon the verb krino- means to choose, decide or judge.

An Introduction to Critical Thinking by Steven D. Schafersman

In addition, there is always the possibility of inadvertent human error. Those who are kritikos have the ability to discern or decide by exercising sound judgment The word krino- also means to separate winnow the wheat from the chaff or that which has worth from that which does not. Critical thinking skills are nothing more than problem solving skills that result in reliable knowledge.

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an introduction to critical thinking steven schafersman

However, a large part of critical thinking goes beyond informal logic and includes assessment of beliefs and identification of prejudice, bias, propaganda, self-deception, distortion, misinformation, etc.

Critical thinking From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Critical Thinking consists of mental processes of discernment, analysis and evaluation.

an introduction to critical thinking steven schafersman

Within the framework of scientific skepticism, the process introduvtion critical thinking involves acquiring information and evaluating it to reach a well-justified conclusion or answer.

A person who thinks critically can ask appropriate questions, gather relevant information, efficiently and creatively sort through this information, reason logically from this information, and come to reliable and trustworthy conclusions about the world that enable one to live and act successfully in it.

Critical thinking is also critical inquiry, so such critical thinkers investigate problems, ask questions, pose new answers that challenge the status quo, discover new schaferzman that can be used for good or ill, question authorities and traditional beliefs, challenge received dogmas and doctrines, and often end up possessing power in society greater than their numbers.

All education consists of transmitting to students two different things: Though the term “analytical thinking” may seem to convey the idea more accurately, critical thinking clearly involves synthesis, evaluation, and reconstruction of thinking, in addition to analysis. Hence a krites is a discerner, judge or arbiter.

In contemporary usage “critical” has a certain negative connotation that does not apply in the present case. Critical thinking, in the strong sense, does not include simply the acquisition and retention of information, or the possession of a skill-set which one does not use regularly; nor does critical thinking merely exercise skills without acceptance of the results. Instead, we are teaching them what to think.